Timurilank's 'Storm Within The Empire'

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DBA 3.0 armies, projects and campaigns set in the ancient, medieval and fantasy periods. Timurilankhttp://www.blogger.com/profile/12856114016218310524noreply@blogger.comBlogger369125
Updated: 28 min 15 sec ago

Battle of Callinicum, 531 AD - the re-fight

September 21, 2017 - 09:01
The Battle

The Byzantine army face east with its left wing resting on the Euphrates River. To secure the army’s flank, General Ascan has placed all his infantry there with all the cavalry under his command to their right. In the centre, Belisarius deploys his cavalry to extend Ascan’s line and to support his heavy cavalry are the Hunnic light horse. Completing the Byzantine deployment, the Lycaonian infantry are positioned furthest to the right adjacent to the Ghassanid allies.

Across the field, Azarethes has deployed his heavy cavalry with light horse archers to face each of the Byzantine commands. Behind each division are reserve cavalry units forming a second line. 

The Ghassanid Arabs are deployed along the rising ground forming the Byzantine army’s right wing. Across the field the Lakhmid Arabs can be seen deployed in equal number. 

The ground is ideal terrain for cavalry and marked only by small patches of rough ground. As the battle commences, the Arab allies on both sides demonstrate unusual energy and close the distance between them. The rocky ground in front of the Lakhmid position forces them to split their effort; their light troops must first secure the ground leaving their cavalry back in support. In contrast, the Ghassanid are not hindered by the terrain and so move forward on a broad front. 

Both opposing centres move cautiously forward placing their initial effort on their flanks closest to the Euphrates River. Ascan has moved his infantry ahead of his cavalry line confident that they will push the light horse away from the river bank..

Nearly an hour has passed (turn 3) and the first casualties can be seen dotting the hill slope on both sides of the line. The Lakhmid skirmishers, making good use of the rocky ground could now harass either Ghassanid taking place on either side. 

The Byzantine infantry were able to force the horse archers to withdraw so now their efforts would focus on the Asavaran cavalry. At this moment, a unit of skutatoi moved into the rocky area separating two Persian cavalry lines. 

Approaching mid-day (turn 6), the Arab allies on both sides have fought well and inflicted an equal number of casualties (2 – 2), yet neither side could manage to turn the other’s flank and take advantage of the higher ground. Further toward the river, the Byzantine and Sassanid were fully engaged along the entire line with casualties beginning to fall among  each of the four commands. 

Despite the long period of skirmishing the Byzantine were steadily pushing the Sassanid cavalry back and with Ascan's the infantry turning the Persian right away from the river bank the prospects for a victory looked good.

After hours of skirmishing to and fro, dust clouds had obscured the activity taking place behind the Persian line. Both Azarethes and his subordinate had slowly moved their reserves further south and the vassal horse archers were recalled from the far right flank to join the battle in centre. 

Mid-day had passed (turn 10) and on the hill Ghassanid troops could be seen fleeing along the slope as they had been dealt a deciding blow by the Lakhmid (4 – 2). This did not bode well for Belisarius as both centre commands had reached a tipping point (3 – 3). Calling on his troops to renew their effort Belisarius with his Bucellarii joined the battle.  

Both army banners could be seen in close proximity of one another, but both commanders were focused with fighting their separate battles. The laughter of the muses could be clearly heard as both centre commands reached demoralisation on the same bound, but it was the timely arrival of the light horse from the right wing that tipped the scales. With the Ghassanid in fleeing the field and his own command broken, Belisarius was forced to order a retreat. 

Note:The battle did flow as history is recorded. In actuality it was a long series of low pip scores that held the Persians back from developing their game plan. Despite the low scores, both Persian reserves slowly moved south toward the anticipated weak link; the area between the cavalry of Belisarius and the Lycaonian infantry. It was here that the Hunnic light horse was destroyed which prompted the recall of the Persian light horse from the right flank. Their rapid relocation tipped the balance to help win the battle.
In retrospect, one-third of the Byzantine army was infantry which limited any use of reserves to the commanders and their immediate guard. This became a critical issue as the Byzantine could not counter the Persian relocation of troops.    
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Battle of Callinicum, 531 AD

September 20, 2017 - 09:16
Following the Persian defeat at the Battle of Dara (530 AD), King Kavadh I continued his campaign the following spring by sending another force to probe deeper into Byzantine territory (Commagene) with intent to capture a number of Syrian cities. This force, led by Azarethes, consisted of 15,000 cavalry had an additional 5,000 Lakhmid allies. Trailing the Persian force, Belisarius had insufficient troops to bring Azarethes to battle, but reinforcements arrived on Easter Friday giving Belisarius a slight advantage in numbers.

Map: By Cplakidas 

Having defeated the Persians on two occasions, Byzantine commanders were naturally eager for battle, but rather than risk battle, Belisarius preferred to drive the Persians back across the frontier. Further, the Easter weekend would be an inauspicious moment to fight as many troops would be fasting. The general consensus wanted battle, so relenting, Belisarius drew up his forces the following day. 

The battlefield.The battle is described as having taken place on the south bank of the Euphrates River and for the most part this offered level ground for half the battlefield rising gently for the remainder of the field. No further description of the terrain is given, but gathering from the disposition of the Byzantine infantry we might conclude there was suitable cover for infantry to operate against cavalry. 

The game board.
1 x Waterway (Euphrates River), 3 x rocky ground, and rising ground stretching across the depth of the board (starting 12BW from the board edge and gradually rising every 4BW).

The Byzantine forces.     
Left Wing1 x Ascan, subordinate general (Cv), 5 x Kavallarioi (Cv), 4 x skutatoi (Bd), 2 x archers (Ps).

Centre1 x Belisarius (Cv), 5 x Kavallarioi (Cv), 2 x archers (Ps), 2 x Lycaonian javelinmen (3Ax), 2 x Hunnic horse archer (LH).

Right Wing (Ghassanid allies)1 x Al-Harith (LH), 1 x light horse (LH), 1 x scout (LCm), 4 x camel riders (Cm), 2 x swordsmen (4Bd), 1 x archers (3Bw), 2 x archers and slingers (Ps).

Byzantine infantry on the left secured the south bank of the Euphrates and on the right, the Lycaonian infantry formed on the rising ground with all the Byzantine cavalry positioned in centre. The Ghassanid Arabs under Al-Harith were deployed further up on the rising slope.

Sassanid Persian force.
Right Wing1 x subordinate general (Cv), 8 x Asavaran (Cv), 3 x vassal horse archer (LH).

Centre1 x Azarethes (Cv), 8 x Asavaran (Cv), 3 x vassal horse archer (LH).

Left Wing (Lakhmid Allies)1 x Al-Mundhir (LH), 1 x light horse (LH), 1 x scout (LCm), 4 x camel riders (Cm), 2 x swordsmen (4Bd), 1 x archers (3Bw), 2 x archers and slingers (Ps).
Sources describe the Sassanid as an all cavalry force, so an adjustment to the DBA Sassanid Persian list II/69c should be made for this battle. No elephants, levy or Dailami are mentioned as being present, so Asavaran cavalry and vassal horse archers are substituted for these. The Persian Azarethes placed the Lakhmid Arabs under Al-Mundhir to face the Ghassanid and the Sassanid Asavaran faced the Byzantine troops. 

Note:Both Arab allies are described as mounted and for this re-fight we may conclude that those foot troops present have left their mounts (mules, camels) to the rear of their deployment. 

Tomorrow, the battle.

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The Battle of the Zab, 750 AD - to the game board.

September 14, 2017 - 09:04
The Umayyad, encamped south of the Zab River, deployed its force into two wings of equal strength. The long line of spearmen was flanked by archers and small units of heavy cavalry protected their flanks. The remaining mounted units formed a reserve behind each of the infantry wings.
The Abbasid, as the attacker, positioned all their infantry to face the Umayyad left wing and held a large cavalry group to face the Umayyad right. Both commands were of equal strength with one exception, all the light horse were deployed on the right wing.

The opening moves. The infantry lines of both sides moved forward and took up positions on either side of the river. The resulting sporadic archery had little effect but did offer both sides a moments respite to consider some new options. On the extreme right flank, the crossing of the river by the Abbasid light horse was contested by Umayyad light horse and Jund cavalry.

By good fortune, the Umayyad light horse had been beaten offering the Abbasid an opportunity to counter which they did with good effect (2 – 0).

Despite the setback, the commander of the left wing held the river bank with his spearmen and re positioned his remaining infantry in echelon and Jund cavalry still further back. This offered the Abbasid an unopposed crossing but it was no means a coordinated one; this opened a possible opportunity.

The middle game.That opportunity presented itself on turn five when the Umayyad struck a small group of infantry with their Jund cavalry. The success of having eliminated one infantry unit was offset by the loss of their own bringing the score to a desperate 3 – 1.
The Abbasid infantry of the left wing were now engaged with the Umayyad on the opposite bank.

After two hours of battle (turn 8) the Umayyad left became demoralised as another unit of Jund fell to Abbasid javelins but the effort had cost the Abbasid dear (4 – 2).
On the Umayyad right, the infantry were holding the river line sending every Abbasid recoiling back for their effort.

With the infantry of the Umayyad right hotly engaged, the Jund cavalry, five units strong, reached the bank of the Zab intent on forcing the battle to a conclusion. On the left flank, the slaughter continued as Abbasid caught isolated units, yet the spearmen of the left wing held their position at the river bank with their general directly behind them.

After two and a half hours of battle (turn 10), the Abbasid archers demonstrated how well their condition had not slackened one bit.

The end game.The drama that developed for the Umayyad now moved to the right flank as isolated infantry and cavalry units quickly moved forward to defend the river bank. The battle took an unexpected turn as each of the four combats fell in quick succession against the Umayyad bringing the battle to an end; 10g – 2 on the Umayyad left, 4 – 2 on the Umayyad right.

Optional scenarios. The historical strengths for both sides varied great, but most set the Abbasid force at around 35,000 troops with the Umayyad fielding two or three times that number. Despite the odds, the Abbasid had a string of victories the previous year and were eager for battle, more so as their leader, Abdallah ibn Ali had been proclaimed the rightful Caliph.
In contrast, the frequency of rebellion over the past four years had eroded the confidence the troops had with Marwan II’s capacity to lead; this was demonstrated by the reluctance of some units to obey orders during battle.
There are a few ways to reflect this in the game, one, by increasing the number of Umayyad troops and/or two, adjusting the total needed to demoralize an Umayyad command.
Option 1, the Abbasid retain their two commands totaling 24 elements while the Umayyad are increased to 36 elements but still form two commands. This would prompt an Umayyad player to maintain larger groups or maneuver part of a command while the rest remained inert which would demonstrate to a degree a level of disunity within the command.

Option 2, the 36 elements are distributed among three commands and not two. The total needed to reach demoralisation however, should be lowered by one for the two commands subordinate to Marwan II. Both sides must demoralise two commands to reach victory and despite the Umayyad having a superiority of numbers, their confidence can be shaken when the casualties mount.  
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Battle of the Zab, 750 AD.

September 13, 2017 - 11:16
 Marwan II (744–50), the grandson of Marwan I, led an army into Damascus in December 744, where he was proclaimed caliph. Moving the capital to Harran a rebellion soon broke out in Syria resulting in retaliatory action against the cities of Homs and Damascus (745). Further opposition broke out in Iraq and Iran from the Kharijites (746) who brought forward their claimants to the caliph. No sooner was the revolt suppressed when a time a more serious threat had arisen in Khorasan.
Around 746, Abu Muslim assumed leadership of the Hashimiyya in Khurasan. In 747, Abu Muslim successfully initiated an open revolt in Khurasan against Umayyad rule. With an army he gained control over the province of Khurasan and in 749 captured Kufa, the last Umayyad stronghold in Iraq. In November of the same year Abul Abbas as-Saffah was recognized as the new caliph.
From his capital in Harran, Marwan II mobilized his troops and advanced toward Iraq. In January 750 the two forces met along the banks of the Zab River.
The battlefield and troop strengthOne source {1} sets the date of the battle at January 25, 750 AD, but little else is known about its location other than it was fought along its banks. If this is so, then the river might be considered paltry allowing troops to freely cross at any point, alternatively, despite a low water level, its banks could still pose a problem forcing a constricted passage. Some sources make reference to the construction of a pontoon bridge to help speed the crossing by Umayyad troops {2}, nonetheless, troops were able to cross at other points of the river
The photos seen here are sourced from Wiki Commons and are placed merely to give a general impression of the river and nearby terrain. 

Troop strengths vary from modest to exaggerated, but all sources give the Umayyad a numerical advantage. However, that advantage was offset with some Umayyad troops having questionable morale brought about through past uprisings and defeats plus the relocation of the capital. For this game we shall dispense with the calculation of numbers and give both sides two commands each (24 elements).
Tomorrow, the battle.
{1} The Battle of Zab, Cohn and Russell.
{2} The Armies of the Caliphs, Hugh Kennedy.
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DBA Terrain By Type

September 10, 2017 - 09:40
Since the publication of DBA 3.0, I have devoted much time and attention to the construction of new terrain pieces. During the early stages of 3.0 testing, the terrain we used came from the gunpowder collection which was, on the whole, quite large in quantity and size. Through our game experience we quickly saw a need to create new items and preferably these should be of medium or small size. Further, we swapped the standard board for one of a larger format, 80cm x 80cm. This seemed paradoxical, but enlarging the game board did diminish the chance of discarding terrain pieces resulting in some quadrants containing three pieces. This generate some interesting battles and certainly changed our perspective with regard to certain terrain features, such as BUA and rivers.  
As the collecting of ancient and medieval armies proceeded this was done on a project basis focusing on a central theme army and a host of enemies. The first of these, the Severan Dynasty (3rd century AD), focused on Rome and the enemies it faced across its frontiers. Hilly terrain was quickly needed to engage the Picts,  forest regions were needed to fight most of the barbarians, the nomadic horsemen had steppe as home terrain, and the Parthians needed dry landscape to call home. 

Generally, the construction of terrain features began after the completion of a new army. As time progressed and the number of armies grew, the terrain pieces varied in quality and colour. This was due to either new materials used or new ideas were implemented for their construction.
The Historical Match Ups series posted here gave me an opportunity to use the armies, experiment with terrain placement, the deployment of the armies, and simulate their tactics, but a closer inspection of the photos did reveal much that needed to be done with the terrain. It was then I decided to take a rigorous step and standardise the terrain pieces for all seven DBA categories. 

The project took a few months to complete, but I am satisfied with the end result. The templates used for the majority of bad and rough going were produced in standard size and shape which greatly reduced the storage space by 60%. Bad and rough going terrain pieces now consisted of one large feature (6BW x 3BW), three mid-size (4BW x 3BW) and one or two small pieces (3BW x 2BW); the latter are useful as terrain can be intersected by a road or river.
Duplicate templates were made so they could be used in European landscape or dry arid regions; an arable region located in Mesopotamia should look somewhat different than one located in France. Templates could also serve multiple functions depending on the scatter material placed on top; this could represent rocky, scrub, marsh, enclosures or even BUA (hamlet) and all this is covered on the final page.
Where applicable, I have noted the dimensions and quantity of certain pieces under the photos.
Scatter Material
Below is an overview of the armies having a particular terrain by type listed in each book. Do not overlook the fact that the first book blankets a longer period of time with each successive book a five century period. Some sub-lists may have two terrain types as this reflects a period of migration or conquest.
Book I  (64 lists, 137 sub-lists)Arable                  64                        Forest                  0Hilly                     28                        Steppe                  7                          Dry                       7                          Tropical                2Littoral                29                        
Book II  (84 lists, 291 sub-lists)Arable                  89         Forest                  14          Hilly                     33         Steppe                 16          Dry                      14          Tropical               10          Littoral                25         
Book III  (80 lists, 127 sub-lists)Arable                  39         Forest                   8            Hilly                      21          Steppe                  17          Dry                       18          Tropical                12          Littoral                 12          
Book IV  (85 lists, 149 sub-lists)Arable                  63         Forest                  10          Hilly                     26         Steppe                 10          Dry                       6            Tropical                4            Littoral                 21          

313 lists, 794 sub-lists
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DBA Terrain Type - Arable

September 10, 2017 - 09:31
Compulsory: BUA, plough,Option: river, difficult hill, gentle hill, wood, enclosure, road, waterway, scrub, boggy.
Gentle HillThese are a single thickness (2mm) of floor cover material, painted and flocked with electrostatic grass. I prefer the grass over the use of turf to cover my terrain as this has proven resistant to constant usage. Regarding the size of hills, I found it convenient to have one large (3BW x 6BW) and several smaller hills (3BW x 4BW) available for games. 
Difficult HillThese are made from the same material as described above, but with two pieces glued together. If the upper piece reduced by a ½ BW this will keep figures from toppling over and function as the area from which bow may shoot from, see p. 10, paragraph 3, Distant Shooting. Apply glue along the outer edge of the underside as this will avoid shrinkage and your hill curling. 

Difficult hill .

I have constructed a duplicate and painted these for use in European and dryer climes; the latter have electrostatic grass sprinkled over them, then painted an earth colour and later dry-brushed. I find this technique enhances the ‘arid’ look. The large rock formations (sculpted from pink foam) help identify these as difficult hills rather than raised gentle hills.

Difficult hill for arid landscapes

WoodI made two sets of templates so wood can be used in for European or arid climates. From our game experience we found the smaller wood far more effective than a large one; during the placement of terrain there is less chance of discarding a wood.
Wood in dry locations can have their templates treated in the same manner as described in the section Difficult Hills. The trees (2 or 3) are mounted on triangular or oval shaped bases made of 1.2mm thick triplex. I found it expedient to paint the bases dark brown so fir trees may be used for both climate regions. 

Wood (trees fixed three to a base)

EnclosureEnclosures have fencing, hedges or ditches to mark its boundaries. These are considered rough going and mine have hedges which can be removed. The same template can serve as scrubmarshboggy ground by simple placement of the appropriate scatter on top. See page – Scatter Material. 

Enclosure with hedges and gate

If you prefer stones mounted on thin strips, then I recommend these have measurements of ½ BW x 2BW which can easily conform to any curvature of your template.
Road and RiversThese are constructed from the same material as used for hills; 2mm thick floor covering. The pieces are 1BW wide as per specification, so the actual road and water surface will be slightly less. I prefer a length of 5BW for both as this will allow roads to meet BUA if placed away from a board edge and with the use of small curved sections (2BW) you can simulate a river meandering around hills and wood. The small curved sections are useful, so you may want to produce enough to use a full length of river. As our boards are 80cm square this would allow the placement of 120cm of either road or river.

Road and river

WaterwayThis feature is covered in detail under Littoral features. 


These plough are the result of several variations. The field is produced by Busch and is packaged as one large sheet roughly 20cm x 21cm. This is enough to cut into small pieces and glue to the standard template after it has been painted an earth colour. Pictured here are two versions of grain fields. BUA (built up areas)


BUA (built up areas)
Of the four types listed in the rule book, City, Fort, Hamlet and Edifice, we prefer to use the hamlet option. A hamlet does not require a garrison but is considered rough going and would reduce movement for troops other than 'fast' types. The construction of the buildings can be followed here.

BUA (hamlet)
Pictured above in the section 'road and river' you will note the advantage of basing structures apart from its template; these can be swapped with others of another architectural style or era. 
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DBA Terrain Type - Forest

September 10, 2017 - 09:30
Compulsory: Wood,Option: river, marsh, gentle hill, wood, BUA.
WoodThe collection of wood progressed through three different modifications. The original set were HO scale with four or five trees fixed to a base. With more experience using 3.0, we decided to construct smaller templates to serve as terrain features including those used for wood. All the HO scale trees were replaced with trees half their height with two or three trees fixed per base. The reduction in size resulted in less storage space; from three boxes to half of one.
In addition to the fir trees I have also purchased deciduous types to have the game board reflect other geographical locations. The extra trees fixed to bases could also serve as scatter to place along BUA, rivers or road. Their placement will enhance the photos taken during a game.
Bases are 1.2 mm thick and cut to either an oval or triangular shape. The edges are sanded and after gluing the trees, the base is painted dark brown. The trees are usually dark green and have a shine to them. To change this, white glue is brushed on to the trees which are then flocked with mid-green turf (Woodland Scenics or Busch). 


RiverConstruction of rivers can be found at the page titled Arable. I will mention that rivers can cross features except hills, dunes, oasis and BUA; therefore, you can produce a few more smaller wood templates to as to have a river coursing its way through it.

River coursing through two wood.

MarshFor a marsh, I use the same template sizes and shape. What colour should these be painted is a matter of taste, but I have prefer and earth – near mud colour. The grass scatter material I place on top are fixed to clear acetate bases, 1mm thick. The grass (12mm) is self-adhesive manufactured by Leadbear of Australia. 

Marsh intersected by a river. 

Gentle HillAlthough we use an 80cm x 80cm board it is very rare that we must discard a piece due to a quadrant lacking enough space for its placement. As a rule we have constructed enough small features that also include a gentle hill.
BUAMost of the armies having forest as home terrain are barbarian; Early German, Burgundian (5th c. AD), Prussian and Lithuanian are a few examples. It would therefore be reasonable to see either an edifice (sacred grove) or a hamlet as a BUA. I do have a stone circle which has a generic look to it, though circular thatched roof huts would not look out of place either. These can be constructed from pink foam and shaped with a modelling knife. Walls and roof would be covered with Milliput, scored and later painted. These should be based with enough space to place a bit of wattle fencing. 

Hamlet structures showing an early medieval architecture. 

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DBA Terrain Type - Hilly

September 10, 2017 - 09:29
Compulsory: Difficult hillOption: river, wood, BUA, road.
Difficult HillDifficult hills, like a few other terrain features, progressed through a series of modifications before reaching a final result. My initial hills were 40mm thick pink foam material, painted and flocked with electrostatic grass; ideal for the gunpowder era, these quickly demonstrated their impractical side for ancients. To improve on the layer-cake look, I scored the hills to create slopes so elements could freely be placed without their tipping over. This worked relatively well, but had the consequence of reducing the upper area to one base width.
The final model is the result comes from gluing two ‘gentle’ hill pieces together, painted an earth colour and finally covered with grass. I modelled some rock outcroppings to define them as difficult hills. Without the outcroppings, these could serve as gentle hills to vary the height, but what is more important are the different sets of rock formations and colour of the hills. These have been duplicated this set to serve for green or arid climate zones. 

Difficult hill.

RiverConstruction of river sections can be found at the page labelled arable terrain. If plans are to use both a road and river, it may prove useful to construct a section with a bridge or ford. These need not be elaborate, but even a simple construction can convey the general idea of an unobstructed passage of a river.    

Two wood intersected by a river. 

WoodThese are covered in detail under arable terrain, but I would add a preference for fir trees for dry climates over conifer trees. Having both in your terrain collection will prove useful as the number of armies and their location grows. 


BUAThese may be constructed on top of a hill for which I have one in the collection; this is modelled after a well known village located in the Caucasus. I have classed this as a ‘fort’ as historically, the inhabitants formed their own defence force to beat off nomadic tribesmen that forced the Caspian Gates. 

BUA - Armenian or Georgian village.

RoadApart from Roman roads which would be strait, ancient tracks should have a number or bends to avoid terrain features. The construction of roads therefore, follows a similar pattern as the construction of river sections. The finished pieces should also match BUA templates as these may be joined together for a game. 
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DBA Terrain Type - Steppe

September 10, 2017 - 09:28
Compulsory: Gentle hillOption: river, rocky, scrub, gully, BUA.
Gentle HillWe generally associate nomadic horsemen as having ‘steppe’ for home terrain, but the Meroitic Kush is a departure from that preconception. As I have both in my collection, I wanted the game table to reflect different geographical locations; the grasslands north of the Black Sea for my Huns, Alans and Sarmatians and the regions which are home to the Meroitic Kushite. 

Gentle hill held by Meroitic Kushites.

The terrain pieces for the grassland areas are the same as those used for arable, so they will not be covered here in any detail. I found it useful to add a few pieces of scatter (rock or scrub) atop a gentle hill; this gives uniformity to the game board and looks nice in the photos.
RiverFrom the rule book, rivers must not exceed 1 ½ the length of a board. For our purposes, that would equate to 120 cm of length having enough sections to wind back on itself, thus creating an extra obstacle.  River section specifications you will find covered in detail on the page – arable.

River after a period of drought.

RockyThe templates for rocky or scrub are kidney or elliptical in shape. These are ideal terrain for psiloi and therefore are not more than 3BW across, as this can easily be traversed by fast troops. The rocks placed as scatter material are sculpted from leftover pink foam, glued to small triplex bases and covered with white glue and sand. 

Rocky ground.

ScrubSimilar in construction as rocky ground, the scrub uses clump foliage which is readily available from model train shops. Busch and Heki are good manufactures of scenic material and on the other side of the pond, you have Woodland Scenics. The bases are covered with pieces from a scouring pad to give the scrub some height; the material is teased or stretched out before gluing. This is glued and covered with clump foliage. After this sets, the piece is given a thin coat of white glue to further strengthen the bond.

Scrub feature set in Kush.

Note; Both rocky and scrub can be crossed by rivers, so cutting templates for these you may want to have smaller pieces that can be placed on either side of a river.
GullyI made two of these of different sizes. Painted brown, the gully interior was randomly coated with white glue and sprinkled over with sand; this was painted and dry brushed to blend with the floor of the gully. At the gully’s upper edge, I followed a similar process but used electrostatic grass. Dry-brushing the grass gave it an appearance of dried grass and to add the illusion of depth, I painted the gully wall a darker shade of earth. 


BUATo be honest, I have not used a BUA with a steppe army. Any foot troops accompanying a nomadic horse army would make use of rocky or scrub ground with possible a river as terrain options. These features do not hinder a general’s command distance as a BUA would and are a haven for light troops.

BUA (Kushite hamlet). 

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DBA Terrain Type - Dry

September 10, 2017 - 09:27
Compulsory: rocky or scrubOption: dune, difficult hill, oasis, BUA.
RockyMy recent project, the collecting Muslim armies of the 8th and 9th century AD, I have realized that without exception these all have ‘dry’ geography as home terrain. Despite both the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates occupied a similar home, only the Abbasid may use ‘arable’. This means other Muslim armies have rocky or scrub as compulsory terrain and a number of BAD GOING terrains. Their construction can be found at the previous pages. If you wish to broaden the variety of rocky ground you might consider painting black rock as would be found in volcanic areas. 

Rocky ground.

ScrubThe long dried grass (12mm) I use is from Leadbear of Australia. These are self-adhesive pieces and easy to work with. Fixed to small kidney shaped bases the outer edges are coated with a mix of white glue and sand. This is later painted an earth colour and dry-brushed. 

Scrub (dry grass)

DuneI have three of these of different sizes so players may have a choice. These are painted a desert colour so there will be no mistaking them as anything else but dune. 


Difficult hillI have described the construction of these at another page, but would only add, if fighting takes place in a volcanic region, then the hills should also have black rock formations. 

Difficult hill.

OasisAny one of the pieces serving as dune can be quickly made an oasis with the addition of palm trees and a waterhole. The palm trees are ‘cake decoration’ manufactured in China. The fronds are dry-brushed yellow and later given a wash of mid-green. The trunk is similarly treated, but with mid-grey and both operations serve to tone down the glossy appearance. The water hole and palm trees can be removed during play and to economise construction, you can use a dune template to serve for an oasis. 


BUAThese dwellings were made after the release of version 2.0. I still use them and they have been re-based with a walled enclosure added. I can use one or all three depending on the size of the BUA template. Adding palm trees or scrub will also enhance their look.

BUA (desert dwellings).

The BUA template can also double for rocky ground or scrub.
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DBA Terrain Type - Tropical

September 10, 2017 - 09:25
Compulsory: WoodsOption: river, marsh, gully, BUA, enclosure, road, wood.
WoodTropical forest regions do not consist solely of palm trees, but in this case I did want my tropical board to look distinct. These plastic palm trees are ‘cake decorations’ manufactured in China. Placing two pieces per base, these were glued and covered with Milliput and later textured with a coating of white glue and sand. Earlier models had other plastic vegetation fixed to a much larger base but lacking adequate storage these quickly became broken and disused. 

Wood (tropical setting).

Extra foliage is based separately can be placed about the wood’s template as scatter material to be removed during play. This has the added benefit of being placed elsewhere on the table; as scrub or villages. 
RiverExtra foliage can be scattered along the banks of a river which would make for some interesting photos. 

River with foliage placed along banks.

MarshMarsh has been covered earlier here. 

Long Grass scatter can replace the scrub pictured here.

GullyThis piece was originally made for steppe terrain, but with the addition of scatter material fits in well with my tropical terrain. 

Gully with foliage placed along lip. 

BUAI had planned an edifice and hamlet for my tropical board. The Hindu temple picture that would serve for my edifice and the hamlet would have structures made to represent bamboo huts with thatched roofs. When completed, this page will be updated and photos added.
EnclosureIn the DBA 3.0 rule book, section Battlefield Terrain, rice paddies were described as ‘enclosures’ having paddy bunds. Pictured here are a number of examples: Paddy bunds.
Rice paddy.

The rice paddy is made from a clear sheet of acetate (1mm thick) with its underside painted brown and green in a mottled fashion. The edges of the upper surface are covered with white glue and covered with electrostatic grass.     RoadRoads and  its construction have been covered here. 
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DBA Terrain Type - Littoral

September 10, 2017 - 09:24
Compulsory: WaterwayOption: either difficult hill or marsh, either wood or dune, BUA, road, river.
WaterwayThis is one terrain feature that has made several transformations before reaching its final form as seen in the photos. The first model was one piece produced for DBA 2.2 which measured 24” or 60 cm in length.
With the release of DBA 3.0, the waterway grew with the increase size of board (80 cm). The longer piece had its bank covered by grass, in some places adding an extra 2BW. Unfortunately, the grass extensions curled which required constant bending to lie flat. 

Waterway bordered by scrub

The final waterway is 4BW wide and consists of two 40 cm sections. Grass areas are now replaced by dune or beach areas which can have scatter material (long grass) placed on them.  Covering the beach areas with scrub and trees, the waterway can represent major river, such as, the Rhine or Danube. Its construction can be read here.
Either difficult hill or marsh, either wood or duneThe number of littoral armies has increased over the year and all come from diverse climate regions; the Early Germans of the Rhine, Carthaginians, Early Muslim North Africa and the Zanj of Southern Iraq. 

Difficult hill. 

Wood and marsh.Selecting terrain features for use with a particular army should be done with a bit of logic. The marshlands of Southern Iraq would make use of marsh and dune than difficult hill and wood. Conversely, Early Germans would be at home with a waterway with a number of difficult hill or wood on its game board and difficult hill and dune for North Africa.
BUAAt the moment I have a number of architectural styles that make up a hamlet; these are Roman style buildings, Arab dwellings or thatched roof huts. From a game perspective, there is a preference for hamlets as these are ‘rough going’ features; a haven for ‘fast’ troop types. As game experience increases other BUA types, such as a city or edifice, may find a place on the game board. 

BUA (hamlet).

Road and RiverThe construction of these has been covered in detail under 'arable'. On a side note, rivers have not been used with a waterway for the standard game as this would greatly slow the game down; having said that, the Battle of Issus (333 BC) was fought over such a field. This might be better played as a BBDBA option.
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DBA Terrain - Scatter material.

September 10, 2017 - 09:23
Scatter material is a generic term describing small bits of terrain, placed on the game board these can better define a battle's geographical location and add an ambience for photos taken during a game. Some examples of these are grass pieces placed on a template to represent scrub or the same pieces placed along the bank of a waterway so it may represent a large river. Trees or stone can also be placed about BUA, river or other terrain features. Same readers may find this extreme, but if we pay attention to detailing the armies we use, could we not make a similar effort with the terrain we use. Many of the examples presented here were result of continuous experimentation.  


Scatter material are not large pieces, the bases are generally triangular or oval shaped and measure roughly 1 - 1.5BW square. The majority are fixed on triplex wood, 1.2 mm thick, and with the items glued, this is textured with a mix of white glue and sand, painted an earth colour, and dry brushed. Some items are based on clear acetate of the same thickness as you will see in the photos below. 

Grass based on clear acetate. 

Most of the items are given a finish to blend with the two game mats used; green grass for Western Europe or an earth brown for arid climates. For example scrub, for Western Europe I use heather or clump green foliage and for those battles set in Africa or the Middle East that same scrub will be dried grass.
Trees are also duplicated so fir and deciduous types can be used for wood in European areas and are palm trees for tropical locations. In a similar manner, I used ‘rocks’ carved from pink foam to use as rocky ground and difficult hills. For use with difficult hills these have been replaced with larger pieces also painted for use in either European or arid locations. 

Wood (fir and deciduous).

I mentioned bases made of clear acetate bases and on these I fix long green grass of 12mm length. Placed over a green-brown template, this can depict boggy ground for arable locations or exchange the template for one painted blue and this can depict marsh for littoral locations.

Long green grass as scatter material.

The self-adhesive grass is from the Leadbear’s Tufts collection which has a wide selection of type, length, and colour. Leadbear is in Australia and delivery is quick and postage inexpensive. The link will take you to his Facebook page where you can view his product. Highly recommended. 
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Historical Matches – Abbasid vs. Baghdad Buyid

September 8, 2017 - 09:08
Following the fall of the Abbasid Caliphate, the Muslim held areas of the former Persian Empire came under control of the Buyids, an Iranian Shia dynasty of Dailami origin. This large expanse of territory comprised of the emirates of Baghdad, Ray and Shiraz. There are three sub-lists for the Buyid armies and for this project I have focused on the Baghdad Buyid option which have a good balance of mounted and foot troops. To complete the sub-list, these are the only ones to have the Dynastic Kurdish as allies (III/61).  
The fighting takes place in the northern regions of the Abbasid Caliphate which are classified in DBA terms as ‘arable’.
Game 1The Buyid found the Abbasid holding a small village and wood relinquishing possession of the sole hill. The Abbasid formed two ranks defining their intent to fight on the open plain between features. The Buyid placed the Dailami troops on the slopes of the hill with the remainder positioned on the plain below. The locals (5Hd) formed to the Dailami left and cavalry were placed to support the battle line.

Both sides eventually wheeled their lines and closed the distance between them. The Abbasid probed the Dailami held hill while on the right archers moved to the edge of the village to bring their bows to target the Buyid archers.

The initial clash had not lasted long before the Dailami auxiliaries crumbled before the relentless steady wall of Abbasid spear. The locals were first to flee creating a crucial gap in the line. With casualties quickly mounting, the Buyid general called for a retreat. Score 4 – 2 for the Abbasid.

Game 2For this battle, the Buyid called on their Kurdish allies who are seen positioned in the centre. The Abbasid controlled favourable ground and deployed between the village and difficult hill.

The Abbasid, taking advantage of the slow approach of the centre units, launched their own attack by the cavalry on the right. These gambled on catching the Buyid archers by surprise. On the left, the Abbasid were awaiting the approach of the Dailami infantry.

Within a short period, the lines of both sides lost their semblance of formations and broke up into small isolated battles. By this time, the casualties were mounting quickly and with Buyid resistance on the right collapsing, their general called a retreat. Little did he know how close to victory he was, score 4 – 3 for the Abbasid.

Game 3For the final battle, the Abbasid formed a line anchored on the right by a village with the open flank covered by the majority of cavalry. Facing them, the Buyid placed their archers in centre with their flanks covered by Kurdish and Buyid cavalry. On the left, the Dailami secured the hill position while Buyid and Kurdish light horse covered the right flank.

The slow pace of the Abbasid line gave the Buyid an opportunity to roll up the Abbasid left flank. The Kurds were given the task and were supported by Buyid cavalry and all the light horse. Buyid archers sent supporting spearmen recoiling leaving a few Abbasid cavalry exposed.

Abbasid casualties quickly soared as they were outnumbered and outclassed by the Kurds. The Abbasid general was forced to counter moving himself and his guard into the battle. The loss of their general, the Abbasid turned about and fled. Score 5g – 1 for the Baghdad Buyid.

III/58a Baghdad Buyid 946 – 975 AD, terrain type Arable, Aggression 31 x General (Cv), 2 x ghulams (Cv), 2 x ghulams (Cv) or zupin-men (4Ax), 4 x zupin-men (4Ax), 2 archers or crossbowmen (Ps or 3/4Bw or 3Cb), 1 x Indian swordsmen (3Bd) or religious fanatics (5Hd) or Bedouin (LH).

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Historical Matches – Abbasid vs. Tulunid Egyptian

September 5, 2017 - 10:15
With internal control of the Abbasid Empire in a state of flux, the Tulunid sought an opportunity to become independent ruler of Egypt. Presented with a ‘fait accompli’, the Abbasid Caliphate formally recognized their independent state as vassals of the empire. However, an unstable rule by successive emirs forced the Caliphate to invade Egypt, on to battle.  
The Tulunid Army developed into a well organised and highly efficient fighting force. At its core were the Turkish cavalry (ghulams) and the abid infantry and when needed, their ranks were further strengthened with Berber light horse and Ghazi volunteers. The Tulunid have littoral as home terrain. 
  Game 1The Tulunid, pictured on the right, were caught in the open facing a well positioned Abbasid force. Archers secured both difficult hills and spanning the terrain between were the Abbasid spear supported by their Jund cavalry.

Tulunid skirmishers on the right quickly moved to seize the heights, but this was contested by the Mutatawwiá infantry. Tulunid archers began showering the Abbasid line, but at an extreme range, this had little effect.

The Tulunid archers met a quick end as the Abbasid infantry pushed forward. This left a gaping hole giving the Tulunid general no option but to commit his reserve cavalry.

Clearing the hill of Abbasid troops took far longer than expected and this was unfortunate; despite the 3 – 2 advantage, the battle progressed rapidly toward the Tulunid camp. Here, Tulunid resistance collapsed as two units was destroyed, including their commander. Score 5g – 3 for the Abbasid.

Game 2Recovering from their defeat, the Tulunid gathered fresh forces and met the Abbasid along the coast of Palestine. One hill dotted the landscape and secured the Abbasid left flank. The Abbasid battle line extended nearly to the shore line.

Keeping their formation steady, the Abbasid moved slowly forward. The Tulunid moved quickly forward to contest ownership of the hill and this action was supported by the Abid formations of archers and blade.

The Tulunid made quick work of the Mutatawwiá infantry and pressed forward to eliminate other enemy. Below, the Abid troops moved to meet the Abbasid spearmen.

By this time, the Abid units and Tulunid skirmishers had nearly eliminated all the Abbasid infantry earning the victory with the Ghulam cavalry remaining spectators of the battle. Score 4 – 0 for the Tulunid.

Game 3The final battle was fought in familiar landscape. The Tulunid deployed their troops in two wings; infantry formed on the right and all mounted units on the left. The Abbasid placed their mounted in the centre with archers on their right and spear on the left flank.

Repeating their tactic of the previous battle, the Tulunid infantry would open the battle clearing the enemy left flank followed by the Abid infantry. Abbasid cavalry slowly moved forward keeping pace with their archers.

Having cleared the dune of Abbasid troops, the Tulunid skirmishers attacked the exposed flank of the Abbasid spear. With the score now an even 2 – 2, the battle now moved to its next stage, the cavalry charge.

With a slight advantage, the Tulunid bested the Abbasid cavalry and the Abid infantry, not remaining idle added another casualty, bringing the battle to a close. Score 4 – 2 for the Tulunid.

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Historical Matches – Abbasid vs. Early Muslim North Africa

September 3, 2017 - 10:14
Around 800 AD, anarchy reigned in the outlying province of Ifriqiya (Tunisia) and to restore order, the Abbasid Caliphate sent its army. This brought temporary relief, nonetheless two decades later (824 AD) a weakened Caliphate would soon permanently lose its western territories.

The Early Muslim North African army has similar but smaller composition to the Abbasid; the shortage in number is filled by native Berber light horse and foot skirmishers. Having littoral as home terrain, they do have an option to land troops by sea. 
Game 1The Abbasid met the North Africans along the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. From the coast, the field was relatively flat but inundated with large patches of marsh forcing the Abbasid to deploy in three columns.

This scrappy affair did not last long but was nonetheless filled with casualties for both sides. The marsh effectively created three separate battles with the Abbasid holding the advantage with their heavier cavalry.

These bested the North African light horse eventually leaving the North African infantry to be picked off piecemeal. Score 5 – 3 for Abbasid.

Game 2The terrain was similar to the first engagement, but the North Africans found themselves facing west.

Both sides wheeled their lines so as to meet between the marshland areas. The North African surprised the Abbasid with a rapid encirclement of their right flank.  

The raid on the Abbasid rear effectively drew the attention of the reserve units that they missed a number of opportunities to support their infantry. In that brief period, the Abbasid spearmen and archers were mauled forcing the Abbasid general to call a retreat. Score 4 – 1 for the Early Muslim North Africa.

Game 3As defender in the third battle, the Abbasid secured their left flank along the slope of a difficult hill. The Jund cavalry were deployed in the front with spearmen formed to their right. The Abbasid would place their hope on a quick mounted charge supported by archery fire.

The Nubian line seemed hesitant about moving forward, so the Abbasid quickly changed plan and would attack in right echelon with the cavalry holding a support role.

The Abbasid right wing could do little as the forward slope in front was covered by Berber skirmishers and Berber light horse was prancing about to the rear. This left the Abbasid spearmen in a precarious position facing African heavy cavalry and their spearmen bearing down on the Jund cavalry.

 On the left flank, the Abbasid archers were being cut up by more Berber light horse. This effectively brought the battle to a close. Score 4 – 1 for the Early Muslim North Africa.

III/33 Early Muslim North Africa 696 – 1160 AD
1 x General (Cv), 1 x Arab lancers (Cv), 3 x javelin light horse (LH), 3 x spearmen (Sp), 1 x archer (3Bw), 3 x Berber javelinmen (Ps). 
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Historical Matches – Abbasid vs. Christian Nubian

August 31, 2017 - 10:00
After 750 AD, Nobatia is under Makurian control and later, the Christian Nubian march into Upper Egypt to confront the Abbasid. The composition of the Nubian forces has not changed since the time of the Umayyad. Their archers are still held in high regard as are the infantry, while the mounted troops still retain the camel mounted spear they also have Arab light horse. 

Like their banners, the Abbasid are now uniformly clothed in black; this is in sharp contrast to the pristine white of the Nubian army.  
Game 1The Abbasid made use of the rocky ground to secure its infantry line. With the exception of the general’s bodyguard, all the Abbasid mounted formed on the right flank to face the Nubian light horse. The plan was to sweep them aside and engage the Nubian second line while the Abbasid infantry engaged the enemy from their front.

The Nubian left wing kept the Abbasid flank attack in check. Advancing slowly, the Nubian archers were able to lay down an effective barrage of arrows.

The Abbasid flank attack had been neutralised which gave the Nubian an impetuous to attack the main Abbasid battle line. The camel mounted units added their weight to the effort to gain a victory. Score 4 – 3 for the Christian Nubian.

Game 2The Abbasid deployed their line closer to their camp. This afforded ample space to deploy the spearmen flanked by equal number of Jund cavalry. The archers and the Mutatawwiá volunteers formed up on the slopes of the difficult hill.

The ground effectively channelled the Nubian advance. The advance by the infantry was stalled as the expected support from the archers had difficulty in crossing the rocky terrain. This delay would cost the Nubians the initiative.

The situation had taken a serious turn as the Abbasid general committed himself and his guard to stem the Nubian assault.

The effort was well timed as up to that moment, the battle was swinging to and fro (3 – 3). The Nubian spearmen were decimated but had lost their camel mounted troops. Seeing the battle lost, the Nubian general called a retreat. Score 4 – 3 for Abbasid.

Game 3The final engagement took place near an oasis which the Abbasid used to secure their right flank. Abbasid infantry formed the first line supported by mounted forming a second line. The Nubian army deployed in an extended line to meet the Abbasid.

This was a desperate action with both sides meting equal number of casualties. Unfortunate, the Nubian general was unhorsed and carried off the field. Both sides lost equal numbers, but the Abbasid held the field. Score 4g – 3 for Abbasid.

III/12 Christian Nubian 550 AD – 1500 AD1 x General (Cv), 2 x Camel warriors (Cm), 2 x light horse (LH), 3 x warriors (4Bd/4Ax), 3 x archers (3/4BW), 1 x levies (7Hd) or archers (Ps) or camel riders (LCm). Allies: II/55b or c, or IV/45
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Historical Matches – Umayyad vs. Khawarij

August 28, 2017 - 09:19
In addition to the modification of existing army lists, the Khawarij, among others, were added. Their list begins in 658 AD or the later period of the Arab Conquest and ends in 873 AD during the Abbasid Caliphate. Their differing views on religious and political matters brought them at odds with the ruling dynasties resulting in frequent open rebellion over the period of two centuries.
In DBA terms, their fanaticism is noted by the preponderance of impetuous troop types; their cavalry are classed as knights (3Kn) and the infantry are warband (3Wb) with a unit of mounted scouts, either LCm or LH. 
Game 1Arabic manuals prescribe caution when dealing with the Khawarij. Following the examples set, the Umayyad were deployed in a deeper than usual formation with most of the infantry positioned forward of the cavalry. The Khawarij formed two wings, one of infantry and the second of cavalry. A small detachment of cavalry protected the right flank.

The Umayyad opened the battle with a retrograde movement toward their camp. Thinking that the enemy was in flight, individual columns of infantry pressed forward. Khawarij cavalry held their position smelling trickery here.

Looking at the Umayyad forming a solid battle line, it was the cavalry that sprung a surprise attack catching a column of Khawarij infantry unawares.

In less than 30 minutes (two bounds), the battle turned to an Umayyad advantage. Umayyad archers positioned on the hill now moved closer to let loose their arrows. At this moment, the Umayyad infantry moved forward to finish the scattered units of Khawarij swordsmen and win the battle. Score 4 – 0 for the Umayyad.

Game 2The Khawarij formed their infantry on the left to clear the Dailami positioned on the forward slope of the hill. From there, the Khawarij would sweep down on the Umayyad line leaving their Jund cavalry unprotected.

Emboldened by their victory in the previous battle, the Umayyad dispensed with the manuals and attacked. Unfortunately, what followed was exactly written as a consequence. Despite the superior number of cavalry, the Khawarij cavalry bested the Umayyad by killing two units of Jund and the general. Score 4g – 1 for the Khawarij.

Game 3On the left flank, the Umayyad moved their archers forward taking advantage of the scrub brush. On the right, the Dailami supported by skirmishers held the hill leaving the remainder of the army to form up in front of the camp. The Khawarij kept their two wing formation.

Leapfrogging from scrub to the hill, the archers were in a good position to rain down arrows on the enemy cavalry. Out of picture, a unit of Umayyad light horse was quickly approaching the Khawarij camp.  Undeterred by this, the Khawarij cavalry remained nonchalant in position to await their infantry attack.

At this point, the Khawarij infantry had made their assault only to be repulsed along their entire front. This was the moment the Khawarij cavalry made their move and charged the Jund cavalry.

Redoubling their effort, the Khawarij renewed their attack bringing down two Umayyad spear. A third, a unit of Umayyad cavalry fell in the ensuing melee while at the Khawarij rear, the Umayyad light horse were ambushed and destroyed by camp guards ending the game. Score 4 – 2 for the Khawarij.

III/31 Umayyad Arab 661 AD – 750 AD, 1 x General (Cv), 3 x jund cavalry (Cv), 3 x spearmen (Sp), 3 x archers (3Bw), 1 x Bedouin (LH), 1 x Ghazis or Turkish horse archer (LH).
III/25c Khawarij 658 – 873 AD,1 x General (3Kn), 4 x Khawarij horsemen (3Kn), 5 x Khawarij swordsmen (3Wb), 1 x archers (3Bw) 1 x Bedouin horse (LH).
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Historical Matches - an Umayyad civil war

August 25, 2017 - 09:32
During the 90 years rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, old tribal rivalries generated many stumbling blocks. The changes not only influenced the social order among the Arab tribes but the restructuring of the military had a far greater impact. Up to this time, armies were organised by tribal divisions, but the need to hold existing frontiers against external threats required a permanent military force. 

During the later period of the Umayyad, they began restructuring the army by creating permanent paid military force. As the military expanded, so did the need for funds to maintain them and taxation became one of the many sources of friction leading to open rebellion within the Caliphate. Our civil war brings to the field the forces of the Caliphate to meet the usurper.
Game 1Troops of the Caliphate are deployed on the left of the picture and rebels are on the right. Dunes, an oasis and rocky ground are the only features to break up a relatively flat and open battlefield. Rebel forces have thrown their archers forward in advance of their battle formation.

Caliphate troops adjust their lines to make an effective approach.

The ensuing clash results in both sides stepping back to reform their lines. Rebel light horse have moved from the left to the right flank to support that effort; but doing so left the rebel archers to fend for themselves; a calculated risk.

The rebel forces did inflict casualties on the government troops, but it was not enough to earn them a victory. Score 4 – 2 for the Umayyad Caliphate.

Game 2 The rebel forces, picture on the left, deploy in an extended line with their right flank resting on rocky ground. Government infantry take advantage of the larger rocky ground to position their archers and Dailami infantry there. Spearmen and Jund cavalry extend their line to reach the dunes.

Both sides closed the distance between them and previously neat lines are shredded leaving many flanks exposed. The rebels were quick to take advantage of the opportunity and made up for their previous battle. With heavy losses, the Caliphate general called for a retreat. Score 4 – 2 for the rebels. 

Game 3 Pictured at the top, the rebels form two wings with Dailami mercenaries holding the rocky ground in centre. Having no such obstacle to contend with, the Caliphate troops form on unbroken line with a small reserve.

The battle took a strange turn as Caliphate infantry changed their approach and targeted the rebel cavalry. Caliphate troops on the left fanned out to keep the rebel right wing. occupied.

The spearmen held the rebel cavalry at bay leaving government’s Jund cavalry to destroy the rebel units on the outer wings. Score 4 – 0 for the Umayyad Caliphate.

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